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by Dave Fudally

1. Artifacts of pre-1800's located at Camp Coldwater:

A. Stone ax found by Dave Fudally in 1987, just south of Coldwater,  given to Dave Radford in Feb. 98.

B. Arrowhead tip from Louis Massey site found by Dave Fudally, given to Dave Radford In Feb., 98.

C. Copper artifact - Coldwater Falls south trail found by Dave Fudally, given to Dave Radford in Feb.,98.

D. Bones and pottery pieces - see artifacts given to Bob Clouse from A. Perry site found by Dave Fudally

E. Stone ax found in 1997 by 2 boys. Camp Coldwater steam boat landing area. The boys notified the archeologist who told them this was an Indian village site and to keep the ax.

F. Bone found at Camp Coldwater at Point A above stone ax site in Sept., 97. found by Dave Fudally. This was shown to the archeologists in Feb., 98. Dave Radford. and Jim Jones. There have been no reports done on any of the artifacts.

2. Sacred Ground - Dwelling Place of Gods found by Paul Durand 1/2 mile west of Camp Coldwater. See Morgan's Bluff several 1840's map in Ft. Snelling map folders at Minnesota Historical Society. Burial Grounds, see Paul Durand's book.

3. Giant Indian bones at Ft. Snelling during construction of Ft. Snelling. The giant Indian skeleton was found where the commandant's house is built on the bluff, see Snelling Reports. early 1820's.

4. August 1836, Dakota attacked Ojibway by Peter Quinn's home at Camp Coldwater. One killed on each side, see reference and Taliaferro papers. Peter Quinn was formerly an Indian agent at Leech Lake for several years.

5. 1841 Ojibway attack Camp Coldwater and killed the Dakota Chief Okahboka and his son, see reference material. Okahboka (The Drifter} had a village site in Bloomington, Gideon Pond located nearby afterwards, see IMA study of village site located by Dave Fudally. Fudally has copy.

6. 1837 Ojibway stay at Camp Coldwater while signing 1837 treaty. Possible Pow Wow site. 1930 aerial photo, see reference material in History Packet. 1200-1300 Ojibways, see Taliaferro Papers. Also food distribution and Ojibways coming en masse from Baker's Trading Post with trader to Ft. Shelling treaty signing. Trader wanted lumber rights Hole-in-the-Day tells Taliaferro to shoot the agent. There were speeches etc.

7. 1839, because of Ojibway murder by Dakota in 1838 at Camp Coldwater, two Ojibway kill Dakota at Lake Harriet causing major battles. Dakota later were removed from Lake Harriet villages to villages closer to the fort.

8. May 1840, Samuel and Gideon Pond, Indian missionaries, are removed from the Indian Lake Calhoun Mission to Baker's Trading Post at Camp Coldwater. The Indians would have to visit Camp Coldwater to see the Ponds, see reference in History Packet. Story of S. Pond and G. Pond, 1893. The Ponds live at Camp Coldwater until 1844. They moved to Bloomington Indian Mission.

9. Peter Quinn was an Indian interpreter for both Dakota and Ojibway. Quinn lived at Camp Coldwater from 1823-1844 when he moved to Bloomington with Ponds. In 1844 he became Indian agent farmer for Dakota. He was an Indian agent for Ojibway at Leech Lake. Peter Quinn's Camp Coldwater homesite shown to archeologist Dave Radford and Jim Jones Feb. 98, see History Packet for more Peter Quinn information.

10. Camp Coldwater was designated as Historical Site by Hennepin County Historical Society in 1952, see reference map in history packet.

11. In 1956, Minnesota Historical Society President Russell Fridley writes Minnesota Historical site article which includes Camp Coldwater, see History Packet article.

12. Minnesota Historical Society puts up historical marker at Camp Coldwater in July 1991. repairing stone tower. Ceremony included Dan Coddington, Steve Osman and Rodney Peterson as Minnesota Historical Society speakers. It was declared a National Historic Site, registered however only as Bureau of Mines buildings on registration. Check Minnesota Historical society files for application report by Don Coddington and Steve Osman to obtain OK for marker at the spring. Look for additional spring Info. How can the spring be historic and now non-historic? We did not have a ceremony to honor the Bureau of Mines. The Minnesota Historical Society must explain the loss of Camp Coldwater 1990 information, and the information being changed.

13. Jacob Falstrom lived at Camp Coldwater, with his wife who was 1/2 Indian and 1/2 black (Bonga family), see reference to Falstrom in the History Packet. They moved to Kaposia, Indian Village and helped Indian missionary David King in 1840. See Jim Jones Tribal Council for Bonga family at Leech. Jacob Falstrom's Camp Coldwater homesite was shown to archeologists Dave Radford and Jim Jones in Feb. 98.

14. Military business conducted from 1820 to 1823 concerned with Indians at Camp Coldwater. The first contact with Indians. Governor Cass visited here in 1820. The Native Americans Relationship to Camp Coldwater Dakota and Ojibway had Pow Wow here for Cass. Cass states his mission was to Indians of our governments expectations of the Indians in the future, see History Packet and Levenworth Papers.

15. Camp Coldwater was the beginning of the end for Indian life. With the coming of the soldiers and their families to this site first the local food supplies for Indians were affected. Local game supplies were needed to support the soldiers and later to support the pioneer families and travelers passing through. Black Dog's village later was given the name "The People Who Do Not Eat Geese" because they sold their game to acquire goods. The Dakota signed the Pike's Treaty only for military purposes, not for pioneers to settle on the reservation. This was a source of aggravation for all. The Indians often killed the cattle and horses of the pioneers and the pioneers would ask for government compensation. As the Indians acquired trade articles from the new arrivals, their camp life and routines were changed. The coming of missionaries changed their religion and their religious habits changed because of the missionaries. Their village sites moved to the missionary sites. They had to take up farming in order to deal with the pioneers and the military. They had to learn new languages. Traders supplied Indians with more guns, traps, clothing, kettles, and whiskey. Indians hired on as trail guides for expeditions. Blacksmiths at Camp Coldwater were assigned to make tools for the Indians, rat spears, chains for hanging kettles. At Camp Coldwater was the military, traders, pioneer settlers, missionaries, a hotel for travelers, Indian blacksmiths. Indian agent, interpreters, lndian wives with 1/2 Indian children, and most important, the Spring. The life of this all, Camp Coldwater.

In December of 1997, Russell Fridley the former president of the Minnesota Historical Society, filed deposition in lawsuit in favor of preserving the Camp Coldwater site because of its historical place in Minnesota history. The copy should be obtained from attorney Grant Merrit.

The State Historical Preservation Office commissioned Bryant Intertec to do historical background check as part of its closing procedure in 1996. The report states in its recommendation, the spring should be preserved.

Indian artifacts from Camp Coldwater have been turned over to the archeologist Bob Clouse in late 1980's and as recent as Feb. 98, to Dave Radford. No reports have been written as of yet. August 1, 1998.

Read about the history in Jim Anderson's words