Bureau Of Mines
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR
BUREAU OF MINES
FACILITIES AT TWIN CITIES
The spring first served the water needs of military personnel and settlers over a century and a half ago. It is located about 1,2-mile northwest of historic Fort Snelling between Highway 55 and the Mississippi River, and just south of the Camp Coidwater site. After the winter of 1819-1820, Lt. Colonel Henry Leavenworth decided to move his command to higher ground, away from the mosquito-infested cantonment along the river bottomland known as New Hope. Many troops had perished from scurvy at this site. He selected a healthier site farther north on a small oak savannah plateau overlooking the river; this became known as Camp Coidwater.
Leavenworth’s men occupied the site in May 1820, quartered in tents and a few log barracks that were eventually built. A small brook known as Coidwater Creek, emanating from a spring at the edge of the pEairie ran through the encampment. This brook gave the site its name and was used as a water source for both the camp and the proposed fort erected nearby. The camp was used for three consecutive summers until all-weather barracks were completed at Fort Snelling in 1822. Selkirk colonists and other squatters occupied the site beginning in the early 1820s, as well as the B. F. Baker fur trading post and later the St. Louis Hotel, built in 1853.
The Selkirk squatters were removed from this site in 1838 ,by Major
Some moved immediately across the river to the present Highland sector of St. Paul, and were again removed from the military reservation in 1840, settling finally in the present downtown St. Paul vicinity.
Due to various razings since the 1820s and 1830s, the camp site has long since lost its early historic structures. Although still maintaining an oak savannah appearance, portions of the area became inundated with low vegetation, and the creek was altered with the construction of a railroad bed bisecting the plateau late in the 1860s. The railroad bed is now a Minnesota Department of Natural Resources (DNR) nature trail known as the “Minnehaha Trail”. The spring was walled in prior to the 1890s and the camp’s periphery occupied a half century later by the U.S. Bureau of Mines facilities, thus precluding any easy access from Highway 55. Acquisition of the portions of Coidwater fronting the Mississippi River was made in the 1960s by the DNR, which now maintains trails and footbridges there.
Early Activities--Bureau of Mines 1915-1960
Bureau of Mines’ activities in the Twin Cities area began before
World War I with a
Metallurgical Station on the University of Minnesota main campus. Known also as the Lake Superior Station, it was authorized by Congress in 1915 and activated in 1917 to conduct iron ore research and research on other minerals in the region. In 1920, its name was changed to the North Central Experiment Station, also known as the Mines Experiment Station. Carl Wood was the Station Director.
Shortly after World War II other activities (e.g., mineral production statistics) were brought into the area and probably housed in the downtown Minneapolis area: they were moved later into the Buzza Building in uptown Minneapolis. The building still exists and is on the north side of Lake Street between Colfax and Dupont Avenues.
At about this time, the Bureau of Mines acquired 43 acres of land around the Cold- water Spring site from the Veterans Administration (VA). The transfer was agreed upon in 1949 after the VA decided the land was in excess of its foreseeable needs. The transfer was authorized by the 81st Congress in its 1951 General Appropriation Act. The original intent of this acquisition was to erect a new storage facility for core drilled by the Bureau and private companies in their assessments of mineral deposits, primarily in the north central part of the country. The facility was erected about the. time of the acquisition, and core was accepted for over 20 years. Core is rock material of cylindrical shape—the contents of a hollow steel pipe bored deep into the ground through underlying rock strata. The contents Ere a sample of the rocks and any mineralized deposits they might contain.
In the early 1950s, some personnel moved from the Buzza Building and Experiment Station to the Fort Snelling area. They occupied the early buildings on site such as the “Old Pilot Plant” (now Bldg. 4 next to the duck pond and also known as the “Transite” building because its walls are lined witha fireproof fiberboard marketed under the trade name Transite) and the “Red Brick House” (the -old farm house) on the grassy area south of Bldg. 4.
The Red Brick House contained offices and the Old Pilot Plant housed
metallurgical research performed on site. The main entrance to the propertywas a dirt road that began near what is now the State Highway Department Building (across from the Ft. Snelling Army Reserve Base) and ended near the Red Brick House. Both this house and another nearby structure, a historic stone “mystery” tower, were removed in the mid fifties. The Tower may have been built as a lookout post outside the old Fort Snelling enclosure in the Camp Coidwater area, or perhaps was used as the foundation for a large wooden tank to store water from a nearby spring (that now feeds the duck pond), or as a structure to produce lead shot. Its actual use is not clear however, and hence it has a “mysterious” background. It was located on the terrace now occupied by Bldg. 11, the “New Storage Building.”
Efforts were made in the 1950s to consolidate activities on the Fort Snelling acreage, and as the result, Congress appropriated funds in 1957 for architectural and engineering plans for construction of a building. A year later Congress appropriated construction funds, and the building was erected in 1958-1959 under the overall direction of A. Needham, the first Mining Research Director to occupy the building. Two other smaller buildings (Nos. 2 and 3, the “Crusher Building” and “Vehicle Storage,” respectively) were erected nearby at the same time.
Occupation of the building began in 1959, as people were moved in from the Buzza Building, the Mines Experiment Station, and those who were already on the property in the Red Brick House and the Old Pilot Plant. The moving-in process involved somewhere between 75 and 100 people, including professional and support staff. Thu is an estimate, since records show 103 employees:were on board at the time of the Dedication, and 114 employees were present in 1962. The current Center has over 200 employees, so the total is nearly double that of 30 years ago. In addition, the total budget at the time of dedication was $1.1 million,and it has grown, with some ups and downs, to $12.2 million now, reflecting an expanding spectrum of research activities.
The Dedication - 1961
Dedication ceremonies for the new Center were held on June 10, 1961.
Photographs of the event reveal a sunny, pleasant late-spring day. The ceremony was held
at the front entrance to the new Main Building, and was hosted by Marling J. Ankeny, then Director
of the Bureau of Mines. Other leading dignitaries in attendance included the Hon. E.
Andersen, Governor of Minnesota, Dr. A. Spilhaus, Dean of the Technology Institute at the
University of Minnesota, and the Hon. J. Kelly, Assistant Secretary of the Interior for Mineral
Resources. The ceremony consisted of a concert, the National Anthem, and speeches.
The Hon. J. Kelly gave the dedication address, and a dedication plaque was unveiled at the
end of the ceremony.
Attached is a list of attending Bureau supervisors and employees, some of whom are still employed at the Center. Also attached is a copy of the Washington staff scroIl..~.
THREE DECADES OF
PROGRESS - 1961 TO 1991
Changes in Center Names
Since the 1961 Dedication, the Center has housed as many as three
simultaneously: The Twin Cities Mining Research Center, the Twin Cities Metallurgy
Research Center, and the Area III Mineral Resource Office. Each of these groups was under a different director, and each evolved in a different manner.
The Twin Cities Mining Research and Metallurgy Research Centers
were in operation as separate entities through 1978 when they were combined into the Twin
Cities Research Center in 1979, with a reduction in metallurgical research and transfer
those functions to other Centers. A small amount of metallurgy research continued at the consolidated Center.
The Area ifi Mineral Resource Office was renamed the Twin Cities Mineral Supply Office in 1967, and continued under that name until it was phased out in 1970 with the beginning of the Bureau’s Liaison Program. Its activities then were finally consolidated in Washington in 1972. It went through a couple more name changes and reorganizations before it became the current Twin Cities Regional Office of State Activities in 1985. It is located on the third floor of the main building, but during the 1960s it was Located on the second floor of the main building’s north wing in space currently Dccupied by personnel and other administrative functions.
Changes in Leadership
Do you remember all the research directors and chiefs (as the case may be) since the
Dedication? In case your memory is a bit rusty, here they are:
Metallurgy Research Directors
2Combined Directorship responsibilities
Mineral Suiply Chiefs
R. Holliday (Act)
M. Sikich (Act)
Liaison Office (MN)
State Mineral Information Office
State Liaison Office
Twin Cities Regional Office
of State Activities
L Esparza* 1987-Present
What about the major structures that house our research and support facilities?
The “Old Pilot Plant” or “Transite Building” (Bldg. 4) was an early structure. Research personnel were conducting metallurgical experiments in it in the early 1950s.
Another early structure is the quonset-style core warehouse (Bldg. 5) for which the original land acquisition was made in 1949 for a drill-core repository. The “Black Shed” (Bldg. 7) adjacent to the core warehouse probably was constructed about the same time. It was used for storage of miscellaneous equipment. The building is now Covered with aluminum sheeting, but in its early years its only protective cover was black tarpaper, hence its name the “Black Shed.”
The Main Building (Bldg. 1), the “Crusher” Building (Bldg. 2) and the “Vehicle Storage” (Bldg. 3) were constructed about the same time (late 1950s).
As research activities expanded in the 1960s, space needs also grew,
so the Bureau
acquired a large brick building in the main area of Fort Snelling. This was Building
212, and mining research personnel started operations there in 1966 under an agreement with the Veterans Administration (VA). Use of the building lasted into the early 1980s.
Space needs continued to grow, and in 1969-70 the Bureau acquired
and occupied Building 201 and a test site in Farmington, MN for use in high-pressure water-jet
research. Building 201 is a hippodrome-like structure that was used to house equestrian
shows. for.the military around World War I. It houses large-scale test facilities for such
research activities as rock cutting and splitting, thermal fragmentation, microwave drying and sample preparation.
The Farmington site was constructed by the military as a Nike missile site during the Cold War era. Building 201 is the oldest structure at the Twin Cities Research Center. According to the Fort Snelling Historical Society, construction was completed in 1907, although blueprints for the building are dated 1895. Them some 60 years laterthe Bureau acquired it.
It has been designated as a historic building and is listed in the
National Monument Register, the National Register of Historic Places, and the State (MN) Register
of Historic Places.
Additional acquisitions included two small brick buildings (205 and 2071 for laboratory space~ and several storage buildings (202, 203, 207).
Space was also acquired in the new Federal Building at Fort Snelling to serve the office needs of several dozen personnel. This space, in Suite G-23 on the ground floor, housed both mining and mineral supply personnel.
In the 1960s, the Bureau dismantled its Iron Range Demonstration Plant-Administration Building in Keewatin, MN and transferred it to Fort Snelling where its components were stored temporarily north of the Core Storage Building. The building was erected in 1964-65 at Keewatin, but by 1970 it was dismantled for the move to Fort Snelling due to the consolidation of iron ore processing work in the Twin Cities facility. The original structure had a rectangular central atrium open to the outdoors. When the components were reassembled, the atrium was eliminated to provide more indoor work space. This reconstruction, just north of the Main Building, and completed in 1975-76, was named Building 9.
Thus, from the late 1960s into the mid 1970s, the Twin Cities facility
made dramatic strides in expanding its physical plant to meet th~ needs of more personnel-~and
At the end of this brief period of expansion certain activities began vacating office space in the Federal Building. By the mid 1970s, the personnel had been moved to Building 212 and the Main Building. The last function to leave was the State Liaison Office in 1976, which returned to the Main Building (Bldg. 1). By this time the reconstructed Administrative Building (Bldg. 9) was in place, and support services personnel were moved in.
In the early 1980s, laboratory facilities and personnel were gradually
Building 212 to the Main Building. The last group to leave was in 1982. The personnel
were engaged in mining research activities, and they returned to occupy space left in the Main Building from the transfer of most metallurgy functions to other Centers.
Building 212 was razed in 1986 as part of a sale of Federal land.
Lastly, in the late 1980s, buildings 202-207 were taken over by the General
Administration (GSA). In. exchange, GSA provided funds to construct a new storage building on the terrace above the duck pond. The structure, known as Building 11, was completed in 1989. Subsequently, much of the equipment stored in the five buildings was transferred to the new storage facility.
The Main Building remained structurally unchanged for over 20 years, but in 1981-82, a large annex was constructed on the southeast side of the “Pilot Plant” wing. The annex became the location of several support activities: the machine shop on the ground floor and drafting and facility services on the upper level. The construction was necessitated by space needs of research personnel returning to the Main Building, as mentioned above, plus the requirements for environmental safeguards.
THREE DECADES OF RESEARCH
This history surveys only the major trends and activities that influenced research life at the Center. Since the history spans three decades, this recap is conveniently titled “The 1960s,” “The 1970s,” and “The 1980s.” The present Center research program is covered in another brochure.
With the opening of the Main Building in 1959, mining, metallurgy and mineral resource functions moved ahead with their appointed goals. Since the mining function was charged with research on a new topic, fundamentals of rock behavior, research and expertise had to be transferred in from other Centers: for example, the “Crystal Bond” project from the Spokane Center formed some of the basis for the various fragmentation laboratories and the Rock Physics Laboratory; and blasting research evolved from the work conducted at the old College Park Center. Metallurgy research continued its work on improving processing of Lake Superior iron ores; and Mineral Resource activities focussed on regional mineral production statistics in the upper MIdwest, as well as mineral property assessments.
Mining research of the 1960s emphasized fundamental behavioral characteristics of rock materials under different kinds of applied energy. Rocks were fragmented and/or deformed by mechanical, explosive, chemical, thermal, and hydraulic means. The physical behavior of rock was also examined to explain why and how rock deformation or disintegration occurs, and to better understand its underlying behavioral mechanisms and internal constitution.
These activities continued into the mid 1960s when the Bureau developed
relationship with the National Atmospheric and Space Administration (NASA) in support of its Apollo Program. The goal of Apollo was to put men on the Moon. Mining personnel acquired a suite of simulated lunar rocks from Oregon and California and tested them in the laboratory under simulated lunar conditions (e.g., extreme vacuum) to provide NASA with insight about the lunar surface for the Apollo Mission and for
future mining of the Moon. NASA work was conducted under the program “Utilization of Extraterrestrial Resources.” One of its achievements was development of a lunar drill (NASA--Huntsville).
Other research was conducted to support outside agencies from the mid 1960s well into the next decade. The research included drilling studies for the U.S. Army and the Office of Naval Research. In the late 1960s, the Center collaborated with the U.S. Army under a Heavy Metals Program to test disintegration systems on frozen placers in Alaska in order to develop an economically feasible mining system. In another study under the same program, the Center became involved in testing and evaluating disintegration processes in California Tertiary channel gravel deposits. All these areas of research activity were carried out using a “total systems approach” to develop new and improved rock disintegration techniques as part of new and improved mining systems. Rock mechanics research, in particular, reeached international prominence by providing consultation and rock property data for mining and construction projects in various parts of the World.
Finally, in the last half of this decade, two important pieces of legislation were passed by Congress--acts that would come to have a major impact on Bureau research and activities at the Center. These acts are the Metal and Nonmetallic Mine Safety Act of 1966 and the Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969. They dealt specifically with the development of safe working conditions and a healthful working environment for those engaged in the mining industry.
Metallurgy research had its beginnings in processing research on
Lake Superior iron ores well before the decade of the 1960s. The ores, called magnetic taconites,
have been used as a source of iron since 1956, but large reserves of nonmagnetic taconites
were bypassed for lack of an acceptable beneficiation process. Much of the metallurgy
research effort focussed on developing innovative technology to make flotation of the nonmagnetic
taconites an acceptable process. In this regard, a major accomplishment of the
metallurgy research was the development of.a patented method for beneficiating “oxidized” iron
ores by selective flocculation-desliming and flotation. In 1972, after several years
of cooperative research with metallurgy personnel, the Cleveland Cliffs Iron Co. constructed
the first iron-ore processing plant of its kind to employ the Bureau’s selective flocculation-flotation
process for the treatment of fine grained “oxidized” taconites on Michigan’s
Marquette Range. The Tilden plant began production in 1974 with 4 million annual tons of
high-grade iron ore pellets and doubled its production to 8 million tons in 1979. The
total investment in the Tilden Plant was nearly $600 million. Other efforts in processing research
focussed on iron
pellet production for steelmaking, recovery of iron-manganese from Cuyuna Range iron ore, and removal of impurities from processed iron ore. All these efforts continued throughout the decade, but with some change in emphasis and some added areas of research. Briefly, the major research activities in processing research included flotation, adsorption-filtration, grinding, and magnetizing roasting. Added activities included processing of noninagnetic crude iron ore, processing of scrapped autos and steelinaking using basic oxygen and electric arc furnace processes. Prereduced (Metallized) iron ore pellets were studied in terms of their performance as an improved blast furnace feed stock. Other studies included copper smelting and acid leaching of manganese ores. Work was added on some fundamental ideas in metallurgical reaction kinetics and mechanics. In the later sixties, because of its processing expertise in iron ore, Metallurgy Research became internationally
involved when it conducted beneficiation research on an oxidized iron ore from Saudi
Arabia. It also became involved in support work for NASA along with Mining Research, when investigations were conducted on rock volcanism, ore genesis, and silicate ore
reduction in conjunction with the plasma arc furnace.
The decade of the 1960s was very active for:Metallurgy Research.
The “Pilot Plant” wug of the Main Building, laboratories on the second and third floors of
the Main Building, and Building 2 (the Crusher Bldg.) housed the research. Iron ore research
facilities expanded in the mid 1960s when operation began at the Iron Ore Demonstration Plant
in Keewatin, MN.
Plant work focused on reduction roasting of taconite using scrap as the reductant, and
continued through the end of the decade. By this time, Metallurgy Research had diversified from processing research on iron ores to a variety of program areas including solid waste, mineral science and engineering, ferrous and nonferrous metals, and recycling of ferrous scrap.
Although the Area ifi Mineral Resource Office (a.k.a. Twin Cities
Mineral Supply Office) was smaller than the mining and metallurgy groups, it nevertheless
served an important function in the 1960s. Mineral production data for the upper midwest
collected for statistical analysis. Other studies were concerned with the collection of
information about specific mineral resource properties such as equipment, kind of
operations, reserves, and extent of property. Personnel occupied the north end of the second floor in the Main Building, a location presently held by personnel and other
Mining Research entered the decade in an expansion mode, spurred
on by the
Metal/Nonmetal and Coal Health and Safety Acts. The large infusions of funds supporting these Acts exceeded the capacity of in-house research to handle them effectively, so an era of outside contract research began in the late 1960s and grew rapidly in the 1970s. For example, by 1971 about $7.5 million was committed to Health and Safety research.
Technology transfer expanded at the same time in response to products
research, as well as in-house research. The NASA support work on utilization of
extraterrestrial materials, however, began to decrease with the completion of the Apollo Program, and was essentially over before the mid 1970s. The mainstay of in-house Mining Research, Rock Disintegration, gave way to Improved Extraction Systems. Health and Safety Coal, Metal/Nonmetal Fragmentation, and Advancing Mining Technology for Marginal Resources (e.g., low-grade copper deposits) were added to research activities. These activities were further classified into fundamental rock failure, improved extraction and advanced fragmentation for Improved Extraction Systems, into health and safety aspects of coal and metal/nonmetal mining, and into advanced mining concepts for marginal deposits. Oil shale was included with coal in conceptual studies.
Generic areas of expertise supporting the program areas included fragmentation, blasting, surface mine equipment safety, in situ and borehole mining, dust minimization, and mine fire protection. Functional laboratory areas active by the mid to late 1970s included in situ mining, underground mining, surface mining, advance mining and dust control. Research in advanced mining systems was effective in providing the mining industry, particularly the coal sector, with new developments in mining equipment that today are making mines more productive and efficient. Examples are the borehole miner and the auger drill.
Impetus for much of the research in the mid 1970s came from the
OPEC oil crisis in
1973-74, after which the Bureau in general, and specifically the Mining Research Centers, acquired additional funding as the result of energy legislation in 1974. Contract funding alone approached $10 million by mid-decade, and increased again by a third in the late 1970s. Meanwhile, staffing held in the range of 80 to 90 people, and in-house funding rose from just over $2 million to over $3.5 million towards the end of the decade. Mining Research further expanded its activities through an agreement with the U.S. Army’s Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) early in the decade for management of the Rapid Excavation and Rock Mechanics Program. The five energy- application laboratory groups and the Rock Physics group at TCRC together with the Mining Research Centers at Pittsburgh, Spokane and Denver, applied their expertise to the new or expanded areas in “matrix management” fashion--an approach firmly - established by the mid 1970s. By the mid 1970s there were about 50 contracts totaling $6 million. This comprehenisve program involved rock disintegration, ground support, and geologic prediction, an aid to help military planners evaluate the feasibility of deep- based weapons and communication systems.
Research on in situ mining grew rapidly in the 1970s. Beginning
in 1970, t~iis approach was a response to developing low-grade or unmmeable metal deposits, such
as copper, through the use of remote mining methods. Solutions injected into a fragmented
ore body dissolve mineral values which are pumped to the surface for processing. Environmental
controls on mining also rose to prominence in the late 1970s. A new Mining Environmental
Technology Program provided funds for research topics such as premine planning
to comply with Federal regulation and reclamation in mined and abandoned mine lands.
Energy research funds were reduced when coal productivity research was transferred
to the Department of Energy. Residual funds were reallocated to in-house research. By the
end of the 1970s, generic in-house research focused on in situ mining, hydrologic analysis,
continuous drill-blast, rock cutting, and dust generation. Other research involved
mine fire control and detection, airbiast and ground vibrations, rock/oil shale properties,
mining, water jet mining, and borehole mining.
Metallurgy Research entered the decade of the 1970s with a wide variety
activities already underway in the previous decade. These activities included solid waste studies of recycled blast furnace flue dust; work on iron and ferro-alloy metals such as beneficiation of non.magnetic taconites, pellet agglomeration, leaching, scrap and recyclable resources and processing of manganese ore, and work on copper and base metals such as nickel in Duluth Gabbro, sulfur recovery and roasting. About 1974, research began on the Alternate Fuel Program in an effort to reduce energy consumption of fuels, as the result of the 1973-74 OPEC oil embargo. A pilot plant grate-kiln pelletizing system was erected to evaluate the use of pulverized coal (as a substitute for natural gas) to indurate taconite pellets. In 1978, this research was expanded to include the use of low-Btu coal gas for this application. A commercial fixed-bed gasifler, loaned to the Bureau by the M. A. Hanna Co., was erected as an annex to Bldg. 2 (Crusher Building). This research was a multi-million dollar givernment-industry cooperative effort involving the Bureau, the U.S. Department of
Energy (DOE), and 25 private sector firms with interests in iron ore, coal, gas, and process design, and demonstrated that coal gas could be used to indurate iron ore pellets. About the time of the gasifier program, other research was being conducted with magnetic fluids, wet high-intensity magnetic separation, selective flocculation-flotation and reduction roasting and desulfurization of blast furnace iron.
The Twin Cities Mineral Supply Office (formerly the Area III Mineral
underwent dramatic changes in the early 1970s. Its mineral statistics function was
transferred to Washington Headquarters while the remaining special studies on mineral properties were transferred to the regional office in Denver. The Office was superseded by the Bureau’s State Liaison Program beginning in 1970, and a new Liaison Officer for Minnesota was appointed (see section on Changes in Leadership) whose mandate was to monitor the State’s mineral industry and serve as the interface between the Bureau and state and local governments and the various segments of the minerals industiy. The liaison function, in turn, was superseded by the state Minerals Information Office in the late 1970s.
Research activities entered a new era with the beginning of this decade, as the mining and metallurgy activities were combined into one Center rather than the two Centers as in the past. The names mining and metallurgy were abandoned and the new title became the Twin Cities Research Center. Combined personnel numbered 170 to 180, with a total in-house budget in the range of $7 to $8 million. Contract research continued on an active level across mining-research oriented areas. In-house and contract research rose to over $12 million, of which perhaps 10 pct was committed to metallurgy research. With rises in the costs of conducting research, and leveling of budgets, funds were shifted away from contracting to support in-house capabilities.
The Center entered the decade of the 1980s with seven functional
representing combined mining and metallurgy functions from the 1970s. They included
advanced systems for fire and equipment safety, blasting technology and in situ mining, dust and. emissions, environmental assessment and ground control, fragmentation and
comminution, leach processes and water pollution, and minerals recovery and plant safety. The low-Btu gasification program was in full operation in the early 1980s, and pilot plant beneficiation studies were conducted on western Mesabi oxidized taconites. Other studies included cupola work, direct reduction of iron ore, agglomeration and organic binders, and selective floculation-flotation tests on Saudi Arabian ores similar to the western Mesabi oxidized taconites. Certain areas of research achieved prominence by the mid 1980s, as they addressed resources that were uneconomical to mine, and that needed to be mined in environmentally acceptable ways. They included in situ mining and solution mining. Other areas were also important, particularly in Health and Safety: mine chemistry and fires, diesel emissions and dust control, and workplace conditions. Subsidence effects of mining increased in importance in the Environmental Mining Program.
From the mid 1980s, in-house funding and personnel increased steadily
for the rest of the decade, rising from about 145 to about 155 for full-time people with
budgets increasing from $7 million to well over $9 million. Contract activities were
Metallurgy-oriented areas active in this period included wet, high-intensity magnetic
separation, high-temperature properties of pellets, pelletization of primary ores, use of
Minnesota clays for taconite pellets, iron ore comminution and in situ direct reduction, and recycling of basic oxygen furnace dust.
The functional areas at the Center had, by the late 1980s, been restructured into rock mass behavior, health, fragmentation, advanced mining, and safety. Programmatic areas included Health, Safety, and Mining Technology; Environmental Technology; and Minerals and Materials Science. Generic activities supporting the program areas follow in general those areas of expertise built up in the 1970s and later. The principal areas included blasting; geotechnology and subsidence; diesel emissions and dust characterization; geochemistry, hydrology and in situ mining; mine equipment; fires; mechanical fragmentation; novel fragmentation; iron ore processing; coal cutting; and human factors. The research in the Environmental Technology Program had increased in prominence due to public concerns over environmental effects of mining, and additional funding supporting abandoned mine land reclamation activities has come in. Solid waste management and mine drainage and waste are two issues of research interest. With the expansion of the Natioanl Space Program, NASA re-established interagency research with the Bureau, and notably TCRC, to develop lunar mining technology and Mars surface sampling methodology.
Finally, as the 1980s drew to a close, the Center had established a strong and diversified research program. This was based in part to stability and determination in top management to improve use of the wide variety of available expertise to seek solutions to the various mining, processing, and environmental problems.
Office during the 1980s. Although its~ functions--interfacing between the Bureau and
the State and local governments and the minerals industry--remained the same, it became
the State Liaison Office in the early 1980s and was renamed the Twin Cities Office of
State Activities in the mid 1980s. It is known by this name today.
13. Needharn, Research Director, Mining
B. Meicher, Research Director, Metallurgy
S. A. Gustavson, Chief, Office of Mineral Resources
A. Grosh, Supervisory Mining Engineer
K. D. Saber, Superintendent
Eugene R. Anderson
Agnes N. Anshus
Robert N. Austin
Lloyal 0. Bacon, WAE
Frank IL. Barlage
Marguerite If. I3eahan
William A. Beck
Albert L. flirt
Richard J. Bishop
*R L. Blake
Dorothy 11. Bucko
Clement N. Burling
R. B. Cooke, WAE
William M. Coon
Clayton E. Cunning
Patricia K. Daire
Francis X. R. Deizer
Morris M. Fine
Richard L. Fischer
John W. Freund
J ulian Garcia
Carmelita L. Gollinger
Vardon L. Gordon
Robert G. Gospeter
Walter E. Hanson
Leonard F. [Leising
Robert W. Ifickey
Raymond L. lull
Ronald P. Ilollenbeck
Ella R. llumenansky
Burlin Johnson, Jr.
William W. Johnson
~4I. W. .Xilau
Donald F. Klyce
Eugene M. Lafferty
Gene M. Larson
Robert E. Lubker
Robert L. Marovelli
Lawrence G. Mar~haII
Edward L. McClure
Rosema tie A. McGowan
John R. McWilliams
Ruth C. Meihy
Edward F. Miller
*Theodore A. Myren
Estelle K. Rand
Lenox IL. Rand
Francis R. Raymond
Donald R. Reichmuth
*G N. Reimers
Katherine V. Schacher
Matthew G. Sikich
Viola M. Sjoberg
T. Sorensen, Jr.
Charles J. Stehlik
Frank E. Straka
* Michael Sweeney
Hazel J. Tuseth
Byron L. Vickers
Raymond A. Voet
Don N. West
*Wanda J. West
* w. r. West brook
Archie L. Whiting
Wanda L. Wood
Z. Zoltai, WAE
WAE——When Actually Employed
Still employed at the Twin Cities Research Center
Minneapolis Tribune June 4 1961